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◆ アメリカの Citroen DS -Owner からの手紙:TMI 事故と福島原発事故。 その 3. 
アメリカの Citroen DS -Owner からのメイル:TMI 事故と福島原発事故。 その 3. 

スリーマイル島原発事故と福島原発事故との問題点。

 第 1 回目の「福島原発事故へのお見舞いのメイル」から始まった America Citroen DS owner からの手紙も 3 回目になりました。
 Ken の TMI-Reactor と Fukushima 原発の Reactor は、同じ GE 製の「加圧水型」であるのに、NHK WORLD TV の報道の図が違っているとの指摘から、私の検索結果では福島のは「沸騰水型」である事が解りましたので、その「前回の 2 つの図」を再度メイルに添付しました所、次のメイルが "Apology" として来ました。

c0019483_17515619.jpg

 この Babcock & Wilcox は長らくアメリカで「火力発電用プラント・メーカ」として有名だったと云う事です。
 この内の Babcock = バブコックの名前は、私の小学校時代から、横浜磯子の八幡橋交差点の近くにありましたので、耳慣れた響きでした。後に「バブコック・日立」となったと記憶しています。 60 年以上前の話です。
 現在は B & W 社は原発製造から手を引いてプラントの維持管理だけをしているようです。日立は GE と提携しており、日本の原発は東芝+ Westing-Hause 、三菱の 3 社ですと。
 それと原発 1 基で地元には 20 年間で 800 億円もの「収入=各種の税金」が入る仕組みだそうですよ!!!
 この計算ですと、福島県には福島第 1, 第 2 あわせて原発は 6 + 2 = 8 基ありますので 6,400 億円ものお金が「我々の税金や電気代」で支払われてきたのです!この国の政策に反対した国民はどの位いたのでしょうか???


 何故、日本は殆んど全ての原発を「沸騰水型」にしたのでしょうか?
 恐らく、単純に low cost であるからだけで決定したのでしょう。当時を知っている人が「生きていたら」、本当の事実を語るべきでしょう!!!

 チェルノブイリの「石棺を見学」して、ソ連当局に都合の良い所だけ見て来た「医師で且つお偉いさん」が、放射能の危険は全く無くて、作物の生産も無害に行なっていた・・・等との「嘘を喧伝する」のは止めて欲しいものです!


2011-4-20
Dear Takashi,

I apologize for confusing you with inaccurate information about the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant unit (reactor) 2. I agree that it had a pressurized water reactor. The reactor was made by Babcock and Wilcox – not by General Electric. If you would like to read more about the accident there and see a diagram of the system, download:
http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc.collections/fact-sheets/3mile-isle.html

I found this and other information about TMI by entering “Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant” on the internet search. One of the articles tells that TMI unit 1 initially started operation in 1974 and was finally restarted in 1985. It is still running with no problems and its license has been extended to 2034.

c0019483_17432773.jpg

from: Wikipedia: TMI-Accident. 排気塔が 2 本写っていますが、空港が近いので「短い」とは、Ken のメイルでも書いてありますし、現在は写真のように 1 基で 2 本の排気塔が使われています。日本のように「水冷式」では川の水温が高くなってしまうので「空冷式」なのは、Ken のメイルでも書いてあります。
 事故炉 #2 ( 奥側 ) は現在は「コンクリートで固められて」存在しています。 事故炉 #2 の付属施設は解体されていますので #2 炉の排気塔のみ使用されている訳ですね。


I now see why your newspaper drawings for TMI and Fukushima were different. The newspaper did a very good job of showing the difference.

On their diagram, what I called a heat exchanger is called a steam generator. The thing I referred to as an accumulator (only because of comparing it to a DS hydraulic system) is called a pressurizer on the TMI drawing. The drawing shows other things connected to it and it shows the steam generator in the same building as the reactor.

当時、Ken の会社が関連していたのは Reactor #1 でしたが、事故を起こした #2 reactor とは同じものであったのです。数年前まで「火力発電プラント」と同じでした。この system に付いては説明して欲しいとメイルしています。
 "Communications equipment" が良く解らないと書いておきました。

The communications equipment made by the company I worked for was identical (but separate) to that installed in unit 1 – which was more-or-less the same as installed a few years earlier in a coal-fired power plant. I was not involved in any special engineering work for these systems.

このような「なぐさめの気持ち」を書いてもらっても、”現在の日本人”て「外から見ている程」に確りしているのでしょうか?と、私には全く心配になりますが・・・
 スリーマイル、 チェルノブイリ共に、原子炉は 1 基でしたが、福島は「何と 4 基以上」ですし、使用済みの燃料棒も保管されているのです!!!だから [ level-7 ] なんですが、関係者はこの事実を正確に説明して居りません!!!これで良いのでしょうか???勿論、ダメですよ!!! 


I have a very positive attitude that all the efforts being made to bring the Fukushima power plant under safe control will be successful. It takes what we call “team-work” and the Japanese people are very good at that.

Best wishes, Ken
[PR]
by citroenDS | 2011-04-23 21:34 | CitroenDSの意見
◆ アメリカの Citroen DS の友人からの手紙 (2011-4-14)
America の Citroen DS の友人からの手紙 (2011-4-14)

前回に引き続いて America からの手紙を紹介しましょう。

◆ 2011-4-4 の手紙の終わりの方に以下の事が書いてありましたので、丁度この問題を書いてあった新聞記事をメイルに添付しました。
 火力発電所では、発生した蒸気で直接タービンを回しますが、原子力発電では放射能から「隔離する」為に「熱交換機」が間にある筈なのに、NHK WORLD ニュースでは「この構造図」が間違って記載されて報道されている、との指摘でした。事実、TMI の断面図では原子炉の中に「熱交換器」が入って描かれています。
 良く調べてみますと、福島原発は 40 年前のアメリカ (GE) 製の最も simple & dangerous Plant であることが解りました。日本の原発の「大部分がこの型」なのです。
 8 年後の Three Mile Island 原発では、改善型の「加圧式」になっているのです!!!


The tour guide explained that the turbine and generator part of TMI is much like that at a coal-fired power plant. One difference is that the water that circulates through the reactor goes into a heat exchanger and the output of this exchanger goes to the turbine. This is for radioactivity isolation in case of a pipe leak or failure inside the reactor. A coal-fired plant would not need to have this isolation.

I describe this because the Fukushima diagram shown on NHK television showed a direct connection of the boiling/pressurized water from the reactor to the turbine. I hope this was a simplification or error by the artist making the diagram and not reality!

c0019483_2025966.jpg


Hello Takashi,

I may have told you when we exchanged messages years ago that I am a retired electronics design engineer. It has been said that we engineers communicate with numbers and drawings, but not by words.
Since I cannot read the Japanese language except that for numbers, I will comment as an engineer on the newspaper illustration you sent me. I have added comments to a copy of it, then scanned it, and attached it to this message. This will show you how well the Internet system works after a double process.


c0019483_20193850.jpg

クリックすると「拡大します」。

I can easily read the dates and map outlines to know the information is about TMI on the left, Chernobyl in the center, and Fukushima on the right. I conclude the 3 diagrams at the bottom were redrawn by the same newspaper artist from separate sources of information. The Chernobyl design is so different, I won't comment on the center diagram. The Fukushima diagram has the same major error as the diagram I saw on NHK television -- it omits the heat exchanger between the reactor and the turbine. One of the newspaper drawings you sent me earlier clearly shows each Fukushima unit has a heat exchanger.

 福島原発などの日本の原発の多くは、造られてから長い期間が経っていて「初期の沸騰水型」なので、タービン建屋が別になってはいますが、原子炉からの「沸騰水=水」は「放射能を持っている」のです。これが今後の「汚染水処理」問題を泥沼化している原因です!それでいて、原発技術では世界一ではあるのですから困った事です。

◆ 改良型原子炉の設置場所と数に付いての Link。株価の高いのと関係がありそうだ・・・ 
 東京電力柏崎刈羽原子力発電所6、7号機、中部電力浜岡原子力発電所5号機、北陸電力志賀原子力発電所2号機の4基となっています。

 私も中部電力、中国電力、九州電力株を「何千株」も持っているのです。

I looked at information on the Internet about the Fukushima power plants soon after the March 11 disaster and know Reactor 1 was made by General Electric about the same time as TMI Reactor 2. That is why I think they are more-or-less the same. I think the newspaper diagrams are based on separate simplifications by separate people.

 Ken が指摘しているのは、Three Mile Island では "Accumulator" のような「加圧タンク」が「原子炉容器」の中にあり、且つ「熱交換機」もその中にあると指摘したいのです。同じ頃に出来た炉であるから同じ筈だとの考えです。
 この件に付いては、私の調べた資料を送りました。それに対する返信は次回に UP-Load 致します。
 正に、この "Accumulator" と彼が名付けた「圧力調整器」は、300 ℃にも成る原子炉内の水の沸点を下げる為に ( 100 bar = 正に Accumulator だ!) 高圧を掛けるためのものでした。


The interesting thing to me on the TMI diagram is the object I've called an "accumulator." (I can not read what it is called on the diagram.) I use the term accumulator because it serves a similar function to the accumulator in our DS high pressure hydraulic system. It contains a compressible gas (nitrogen in the DS, perhaps just air in the reactor system) to absorb most of any pressure variations in the system. The DS accumulator has a diaphragm to separate the fluid and nitrogen. If the similar device in the reactor system is higher in elevation than any other part of the system, they may just rely on gravity for separation and not need a diaphragm.

Three Mile Island is along the Susquehanna River a short distance south of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The river flows into Chesapeake Bay which flows into the Atlantic Ocean. The river water is completely fresh (no salt). Between TMI and the bay, there are 2 dams with hydroelectric power plants. There is another nuclear power plant near one of these dams and another along the bay. The river is very wide and very shallow with lots of big rocks. Even people sailing in canoes have to navigate with care.

 私の BLOG に Ken の手紙を掲載しても良いかと尋ねたのですが、大変名誉なことではあるが、 Ken が Citroen DS や原子炉の専門家では無いことを読者に分かるようにして下さいとのことです。

I'm honored that you would want to include me on your blog. I know a lot more about Citroen D-models than about nuclear power plants. Please do not make your readers think I'm an expert on either subject. My approach on most of what I wrote about D-models is tell how I cared for my cars -- not telling others how they should care for their cars.

At the time of the TMI accident, I was manager of research and development of a small company (about 120 employees) here in Reading that designed and manufactured the inside-the-plant voice communications equipment installed in both units at TMI. We were told this equipment worked perfectly during the emergency and there was no need to change to an identical "backup" system or to a third sound-powered (no need for electricity) system. We also were told the changeover of TMI Unit 2 from being a generator of electricity to a consumer (user) at the time of the accident was so fast the lights never flickered.

There is more I could write about, but I will save it for a separate message later.

Regards, Ken



軽水炉 には、 2 種類ある。 Three Mile Island は PWR である。

Pressured Water Reactor. ( PWR )
c0019483_22361058.gif

Boiling Water Reactor ( BWR ) は、日本に多く福島原発はこの Type であり、原子炉の中を通った放射線を含む水が「タービン建屋」に漏れているようだ!タービンの保守、点検で放射能を浴びる危険性がある!!!
c0019483_22402285.gif

電気事業連合会 HP より。
[PR]
by citroenDS | 2011-04-17 20:26 | CitroenDSの意見
◆ 北米のシトロエン DS の友人からの手紙 ( 2011-3-28 )
北米のシトロエン DS の友人からの手紙 ( 2011-3-28 )

America の Ken Betsh からの最初のメイルが来たのは 3 月 21 日の事であった。下のメイルのように 2008 年頃に数回の DS に付いてのやりとりがあっただけで、もう忘れていた人だった。直ぐに返信は送ったが、折り返しに長文のメイルがまた来たのだ。引退して時間があるのだろうなどと、相手の真心を感じる気持ちが薄くなってしまっている自分が恥ずかしかった。それにしても・・・と思っていたら、スリーマイル島の事故時に近くに住んでいたことが分かって来たし、原発関連の電気系統の技術者だったようで、この分野も DS 並みに詳しい事が分かって来たところだ。
 Ken は今 81 歳だけれども、32 年まえには 81-32 = 49 歳の働き盛りであった訳になる。

Hello Takashi Hagino,

The very sad news from Japan has reminded me of our exchange of e-mail and letters many years ago about Citroen automobiles. Since you are the only two people I have ever written to in Japan, I send my sympathy to all the people in Japan for the losses they have had and the hard work needed to recover. I regard the Japanese people as among the best problem-solvers in the world.

I will write more when I know you are still able to receive my e-mail messages. Today I was able to look at your webpage, but note the latest date is 2008. If and when you reply, please use my current e-mail address.

Ken Betsh

◆ NHK-World  で 24 時間放送がされており、英訳で詳しい内容も知っている。菅さんよりも枝野官房長官の名前の方が出てくるように、総理大臣の姿が見えなかった事実がここにでも証明されたようだ。

Hello Takashi

I am very pleased to have prompt replies from you and to know both of you were safely in the Yokohama area when the disaster happened. My concern for you was that you might have moved to, or have been visiting, the Touhoku area. Or, you may have had relatives or good friends there that didn't survive.

Your NHK television network has English language version called NHK World that is available to us 24 hours a day from a Philadelphia television station on one of their secondary digital channels.
My wife Polly and I are just as concerned with the Fukushima nuclear power plant problems as if the location were here in the U.S. We think the people in charge and NHK are trying very hard (and honestly) to keep everyone informed without creating panic. We like the way your Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano answers questions (assuming the English translator is accurately telling us what he says)..


 この長いメイルが来たのが 3 月 23 日のことで、32 年前に Three-Mile-Island 原発事故の時には近くに住んでいたこと、DS の車検で後輪の片側の Brake-Shoe-Lining が剥がれており、州法では全交換の為に半径 8 km しか離れていない部品屋に行っていたので良く覚えているのだった。事故を知ったのは家へ帰ったお昼のことだったそうだ。 

I may have told you before that our home here in Pennsylvania is about 75 km from Three Mile Island. We still remember radiation fears even though our trouble was in 1979, 32 years ago. The Three Mile Island accident was completely due to human failure and occurred around 5:00 in the morning. The public, including people living very close, didn't know about it for several hours. I remember it quite well because, without knowing about it, that morning I drove my 1971 Citroen DS to Red Dellinger's shop that was within a 5-mile (8 km) radius of the power plant. I only went for the annual safety inspection that Pennsylvania requires, but the inspecting mechanic found an unexpected problem that took about 2 hours to fix. A bonded lining on one of the rear brake "shoes," had separated. When that happens, our Pennsylvania law requires that all the rear shoes be replaced. I first learned about the power plant accident when I got back to work in Reading about noon that day.

 地震は発生時に稼動していた古い 東京電力福島原発 3 基は 30 ( 40 年 ) 年以上経っていて、Three-Mile 島の #2 とほぼ同じ構造だ。事実、福島原発は GE 製であり、東芝製ではありません。 わたしにとって興味ある事は、燃料棒は fuel-rod と言う事でした。本当の和訳なんですね・・・

According to information I found on the Internet, the three oldest reactors at Fukushima were operating when the earthquake struck. It said they are over 30 years old and I conclude they are more-or-less identical to reactor #2 at Three Mile Island. The Three Mile Island reactor #2 had just been started for the first time a few weeks before the accident. Therefore, there were no spent fuel rods stored with the reactor. When it was up to full operation, reactor #1 was taken out of operation for extended maintenance, which had just started when the accident happened.
The building housing reactor #2 was sealed up without anyone knowing just what happened inside the reactor. Afterwards, the turbine in a nearby building and, I think, the equipment in the control room were taken away. After a long delay in which upgrades were made, reactor #1 was restarted and is still operating today. Just like the Fukushima reactor #1 that had been scheduled for permanent shut-down earlier this year, extensions have been given to our reactor #1 to keep it running after its original planned lifetime had ended.

Three-Mile 島の写真を見ると 4 本の冷却塔が見えますが、原発 1 基当り 2 本で近くに空港があるので「普通より短い」のです。その内の 2 本は「人災の記念」として保存されています。冷却水による川の水温上昇の為に、大部分は空中に放散されています。

If you see photos of Three Mile Island, you will see 4 cooling towers. There are 2 for each reactor. They are shorter than normal because of a nearby airport. 2 of them are now inactive and serve, in my mind, as a "monument" to a human error. Three Mile Island is a small island (3 miles long) on a river that eventually flows into the Atlantic Ocean. There's a strict low limit on the power plants heating the river water -- hence almost all of the excess heat must go into the air.

日本の電力会社と政府に対して事故の解決を祈ります。もし、使用済み核燃料の永久的な処理方法が見付かれば、原発の将来があると信じています。

Your power company and government have my very best wishes for recovery. I believe there is a future to nuclear power, but only if a permanent method is found to make spent fuel rods harmless.


私の Blog を見て「きれいな DS23 なんだから、地震よけのガレージを作ればと書いてくれたが、実際、地震時には 1 F のガレージの天井 (スレート板) が落ちて来ないかと心配したよ!!!

I downloaded your Citroen blog and was very pleased to see a recent photo of you standing beside your very beautiful DS23. I hope you keep it in an earthquake-proof garage. I also enjoyed looking at your models with the wooden Traction (TA) the most interesting. Did you make it, or know who did?

私はもう 81 歳だから仕事も限られたものだし、脊椎を痛めて手術をしているので Citroen D-models だけの時代は 1964 に始まり 2004 年に 1971 DS を売って Audi A6, Toyota Avalon を買った時におわったんだ。でも、1972 Citroen D-wagon は、まだ良くはしるし近くに置いてあるし、簡単な修理位はやっている。30 年前にフランスから移住して来た良いメカニックを近くにいるので幸いだし、部品は B. Nauss にたのんでいる・・・

I'm now 81 years old and limited in my walking and lifting ability after spinal-fusion surgery in 2004. My own-and-drive-only-Citroen D-models period that started in 1964 ended in 2004 when I sold my 1971 DS and bought a used Audi A6 -- which in 2007 was traded for a new Toyota Avalon. We still have the 1972 Citroen D-wagon that still runs very well but is kept close to home. I now only do simple or emergency repairs to it. I'm lucky to have a very good mechanic about one-half hour away who owned and repaired DS's in France before he moved to the U.S. about 30 years ago. We lost our good friend and Citroen expert Red Dellinger a few years ago. He died from a heart attack. All his cars and parts were sold at an auction. Don James (JBM Industries) no longer makes or sells Citroen parts. I rely on Brad Nauss for all my Citroen parts.

Since I sent you a CD-ROM many years ago with the D-Book I compiled, I've revived it twice to add several articles and illustrations. I would like to send you a revised CD-ROM that would also include copies of the Citroenvie newsletters, plus some recent articles I've written, plus some JPG photographs. This would be without any cost to you -- you already paid me for the first one and the amount was far greater than my expense.

To send this to you, I need your mailing address (if it has changed from / 221 Kanagawa.ku / Yokohama). Also, do you have software on your computer to look at Adobe, Microsoft Word, and JPG photographs? You can get free software from Adobe to look at PDF files. I can send the D-Book and my articles as TXT (text) files if you can't open Word files. I have the Microsoft WP system on my Dell computer and it opens JPG files without separate software.

With best regards, Ken Betsh

この後には「原子炉からの水蒸気がタービンを直接廻すような」 NHK や新聞記事の断面図の間違いに付いてのメイルも、今日届いておりますので、次回に紹介します。
[PR]
by citroenDS | 2011-04-14 14:00 | CitroenDSの意見